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1. Transmitting the message to endpoint http://<host>:<port>/sap/xi/engine?type=entry using connection AFW failed, due to: Received HTTP response code 403

Tip: Activate the service sap/xi/engine in transaction SICF

2. "Configured source directory does not exist".

Tip: In case you have used FTP as the protocol, you need to have a FTP server configured. If you have used NFS, it means that you are accessing a folder on the XI server itself, for all others use FTP. More on FTP - https://weblogs.sdn.sap.com/pub/wlg/4120

3. Transmitting the message to endpoint http://<server>:50000/sap/xi/engine/entry?action=execute using connection AFW failed, due to: Received HTTP response code 404

Tip: Note the wrong port 50000 here.

a) Run Tcode SMICM , and then goto -> services (or Shift-F1). Check what is your ICM HTTP port. Usually it is 8000. 

b) Open the business system of your integration server in the SLD, Check if you have specified http://<host>:8000/sap/xi/engine?type=entry as pipeline URL there.

c) The pipeline URL is also maintained in transaction SXMB_ADM under the Global configuration parameter Corresponding Integration Server or under the Specific configuration parameter IS_URL.

d) Verify if com.sap.aii.connect.integrationserver.r3.httpport is correctly set in the Exchange Profile.

4. Conversion initialization failed: java.lang.Exception: java.lang.Exception: java.lang.Exception: Error(s) in XML conversion parameters found: Mandatory parameter 'xml.keyfieldName': no value found

Tip: In case you have multiple records and they have various occurrences, then make sure you have a key field for each record specified in your content conversion.

5. Transmitting the message to endpoint http://<host>:<port>/sap/xi/engine?type=entry using connection AFW failed, due to: com.sap.aii.af.ra.ms.api.RecoverableException: java.nio.BufferOverflowException.

Tip: The following is a reply from Shravan Miryala in a thread that was closed.

OSS note 872508 explains this error.
Also check icm/HTTP/max_request_size_KB parameter is set to max value 2097152 in the instance profile.

OSS Note 872508 - XI 3.0 AF: BufferOverflowException when sending large msgs

Here is a copy of the OSS Note

Symptom -
When sending large messages > 16 MB through the XI Adapter Framework, you proradically receive a java.nio.BufferOverflowException in the J2EE trace and/or Audit Log.

Other terms
XI30, File Adapter, JDBC Adapter, Messaging System, XI Adapter

Reason and Prerequisites
This problem is caused by a bug in the Sun JVM and has been fixed as of version 1.4.2_08 and 1.3.1_16.

For details, refer to http://bugs.sun.com/bugdatabase/view_bug.do?bug_id=4949631.

Solution
If you are using JDK 1.4.2, upgrade to JDK 1.4.2_08 or higher. If you are using JDK 1.3.1, upgrade to JDK 1.3.1_16 or higher. For details regarding the JDK upgrade, refer to note 718901.
According to note 1495160, you should be using SAP JVM 4.1 nowadays. 

6. Could not process due to error: com.sap.aii.adapter.file.configuration.DynamicConfigurationException: The Adapter Message Property 'XXXXX' was configured as mandatory element, but there is no 'DynamicConfiguration' element in the XI Message header

Tip: Make sure in the file adapter -> Adapter Specific Identifiers you have selected XXXXX

Note: XXXXX can be FileName, Directory, FileType, FileEncoding, SourceFileSize, SourceFileTimeStamp, SourceFTPHost

7. Attempt to process file failed with java.lang.Exception: Exception in XML Parser (format problem?):'java.lang.Exception: Message processing failed in XML parser: 'java.lang.Exception: Column value '12345678' too long (>6 for 38. column) - must stop', probably configuration error in file adapter (XML parser error)'  (*Receiver Channel*)

Tip:

a) Check the target payload after mapping and make sure all the fields are generated. In case any field is not created the FCC for fixed length files will fail.

b) Check the value being generated at the mentioned column value. Verify if its length matches the length of the field in that position.

8. Channel has not been correctly initialized and cannot process messages (*Receiver Channel*)

Tip:  Check if you have provided the occurrence details for the Recordset structure. For example Header,1, Body,* etc. If so remove the occurrence. The receiver file adapter does not require occurrences to be mentioned. Only sender file adapter expects the same.

9. Error: Message processing failed: Exception: ftp access error: java.net.SocketException: Connection reset

Tip:  A socket exception normally implies a network connectivity issue. Check if you can connect to the FTP server from your XI server. Try to ping the FTP port from your XI server and check if it works fine.

10. Error occurred while connecting to the FTP server "XXX.XXX.XX.XX.com:21": java.net.SocketException: Connection timed out:could be due to invalid address

Tip: This is probably due to the adapter unable to do a host name resolution. Instead of XXX.XXX.XX.XX.com or of XYZ.X.ZZ.org (host name), try giving the ip address of the server.

Additional Info: 

To see the exception stack trace in the adapter log files present in the XI server, navigate to

/usr/sap/[SID]/[instance]/j2ee/cluster/server[N]/log/applications.[n].log
/usr/sap/[SID]/[instance]/j2ee/cluster/server[N]/log/applications\com.sap.xi\xi.log

Blog

SAP Network Blog: Troubleshooting the File Adapter (Last Updated on 02 July'10)