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2. What is an ABAP data dictionary?- ABAP 4 data dictionary describes the logical structures of the objects used in application development and shows how
they are mapped to the underlying relational database in tables/views.

3. What are domains and data element?- Domains:Domain is the central object for describing the technical characteristics of an attribute of an business objects. It
describes the value range of the field. Data Element: It is used to describe the

semantic definition of the table fields like description the field. Data element

describes how a field can be displayed to end-user.
4. What is foreign key relationship?- A relationship which can be defined between
tables and must be explicitly defined at field level. Foreign keys are used to

ensure the consistency of data. Data entered should be checked against existing

data to ensure that there are now contradiction. While defining foreign key

relationship cardinality has to be specified. Cardinality mentions how many

dependent records or how referenced records are possible.

5. Describe data classes.-
Master data: It is the data which is seldomly changed.Transaction data: It is the data which is often changed. Organization data: It is a
customizing data which is entered in the system when the system is configured

and is then rarely changed. System data:It is the data which R/3 system needs for


6. What are indexes?- Indexes are described as a copy of a database table reduced to specific fields. This data exists in sorted form. This sorting form ease fast
access to the field of the tables. In order that other fields are also read, a pointer to

the associated record of the actual table are included in the index. Yhe indexes are

activated along with the table and are created automatically with it in the


7. Difference between transparent tables and pooled tables.- Transparent tables:
Transparent tables in the dictionary has a one-to-one relation with the table in

database. Its structure corresponds to single database field. Table in the database

has the same name as in the dictionary. Transparent table holds application data.

Pooled tables. Pooled tables in the dictionary has a many-to-one relation with the

table in database. Table in the database has the different name as in the dictionary.

Pooled table are stored in table pool at the database level.

8. What is an ABAP/4 Query?- ABAP/4 Query is a powerful tool to generate simple reports without any coding. ABAP/4 Query can generate the following 3
simple reports: Basic List: It is the simple reports. Statistics: Reports with

statistical functions like Average, Percentages. Ranked Lists: For analytical

reports. - For creating a ABAP/4 Query, programmer has to create user group and

a functional group. Functional group can be created using with or without logical

database table. Finally, assign user group to functional group. Finally, create a

query on the functional group generated.
9. What is BDC programming?- Transferring of large/external/legacy data into SAP system using Batch Input programming. Batch input is a automatic
procedure referred to as BDC(Batch Data Communications).The central

component of the transfer is a queue file which receives the data vie a batch input

programs and groups associated data into "sessions".
10. What are the functional modules used in sequence in BDC?- These are the 3 functional modules which are used in a sequence to perform a data transfer
successfully using BDC programming: BDC_OPEN_GROUP - Parameters like

Name of the client, sessions and user name are specified in this functional

modules. BDC_INSERT - It is used to insert the data for one transaction into a

session. BDC_CLOSE_GROUP - This is used to close the batch input session.

11. What are internal tables?- Internal tables are a standard data type object which exists only during the runtime of the program. They are used to perform table
calculations on subsets of database tables and for re-organising the contents of

database tables according to users need.

12. What is ITS? What are the merits of ITS?- ITS is a Internet Transaction Server. ITS forms an interface between HTTP server and R/3 system, which
converts screen provided data by the R/3 system into HTML documents and viceversa.

Merits of ITS: A complete web transaction can be developed and tested in

R/3 system. All transaction components, including those used by the ITS outside

the R/3 system at runtime, can be stored in the R/3 system. The advantage of

automatic language processing in the R/3 system can be utilized to languagedependent

HTML documents at runtime.

13. What is DynPro?-
DynPro is a Dynamic Programming which is a combination of screen and the associated flow logic Screen is also called as DynPro.14. What are screen painter and menu painter?- Screen painter: Screen painter is a
tool to design and maintain screen and its elements. It allows user to create GUI

screens for the transactions. Attributes, layout, filed attributes and flow logic are

the elements of Screen painter. Menu painter: Menu painter is a tool to design the

interface components. Status, menu bars, menu lists, F-key settings, functions and

titles are the components of Menu painters. Screen painter and menu painter both

are the graphical interface of an ABAP/4 applications.

15. What are the components of SAP scripts?- SAP scripts is a word processing tool of SAP which has the following components: Standard text. It is like a
standard normal documents. Layout sets. - Layout set consists of the following

components: Windows and pages, Paragraph formats, Character formats. Creating

forms in the R/3 system. Every layout set consists of Header, paragraph, and

character string. ABAP/4 program.

16. What is ALV programming in ABAP? When is this grid used in ABAP?-
ALV is Application List viewer. Sap provides a set of ALV (ABAP LIST

VIEWER) function modules which can be put into use to embellish the output of

a report. This set of ALV functions is used to enhance the readability and

functionality of any report output. Cases arise in sap when the output of a report

contains columns extending more than 255 characters in length. In such cases, this

set of ALV functions can help choose selected columns and arrange the different

columns from a report output and also save different variants for report display.

This is a very efficient tool for dynamically sorting and arranging the columns

from a report output. The report output can contain up to 90 columns in the

display with the wide array of display options.
17. What are the events in ABAP/4 language?- Initialization, At selection-screen,Start-of-selection, end-of-selection, top-of-page, end-of-page, At line-selection,
At user-command, At PF, Get, At New, At LAST, AT END, AT FIRST.

18. What is CTS and what do you know about it?- The Change and Transport System (CTS) is a tool that helps you to organize development projects in the
ABAP Workbench and in Customizing, and then transport the changes between

the SAP Systems and clients in your system landscape. This documentation

provides you with an overview of how to manage changes with the CTS and

essential information on setting up your system and client landscape and deciding

on a transport strategy. Read and follow this documentation when planning your

development project.19. What are logical databases? What are the advantages/ dis-advantages of
logical databases?- To read data from a database tables we use logical database.
A logical database provides read-only access to a group of related tables to an

ABAP/4 program. Advantages: i)check functions which check that user input is

complete, correct,and plausible. ii)Meaningful data selection. iii)central

authorization checks for database accesses. iv)good read access performance

while retaining the hierarchical data view determined by the application logic. dis

advantages: i)If you donot specify a logical database in the program attributes,the

GET events never occur. ii)There is no ENDGET command,so the code block

associated with an event ends with the next event statement (such as another GET


20. What is a batch input session?- BATCH INPUT SESSION is an intermediate step between internal table and database table. Data along with the action is stored
in session ie data for screen fields, to which screen it is passed, program name

behind it, and how next screen is processed.
21. How to upload data using CATT ?- These are the steps to be followed to Upload data through CATT: Creation of the CATT test case & recording the
sample data input. Download of the source file template. Modification of the

source file. Upload of the data from the source file.
22. What is Smart Forms?- Smart Forms allows you to create forms using a graphical design tool with robust functionality, color, and more. Additionally, all
new forms developed at SAP will be created with the new Smart Form solution.

23. How can I make a differentiation between dependent and independent data?-
Client dependent or independent transfer requirements include client specific or

cross client objects in the change requests. Workbench objects like SAPscripts are

client specific, some entries in customizing are client independent. If you display

the object list for one change request, and then for each object the object

attributes, you will find the flag client specific. If one object in the task list has

this flag on, then that transport will be client dependent.
24. What is the difference between macro and subroutine?-  Macros can only be used in the program the are defined in and only after the definition are expanded
at compilation / generation. Subroutines (FORM) can be called from both the

program the are defined in and other programs . A MACRO is more or less an

abbreviation for some lines of code that are used more than once or twice. A

FORM is a local subroutine (which can be called external). A FUNCTION is
(more or less) a subroutine that is called external. Since debugging a MACRO is

not really possible, prevent the use of them (I've never used them, but seen them

in action). If the subroutine is used only local (called internal) use a FORM. If the

subroutine is called external (used by more than one program) use a FUNCTION.
Which table stores the Programs created?
Table: TRDIR
How can we compare two programs

Here we can get tips and tricks for different ABAP queries
Difference between synchronous and asynchronous processing?
syncronu is sequentioal updation of feilds where as usencro is not in

Answers to your questions--

1> What is BDC recording?
in BDC recording you record the transaction through which you want to

upload data. This

tool will create a program for you and you dont need to create the

program manually. You

can code both call transaction and session method using this tool .
2> What is the role of BDCdata in call transaction method?
in bdc you need to pass data to particular screen and particular screen

fields.We do this using the

structure BDCDATA available in the abap dictonary. for more

information just have a look at a

sample code for BDC.
3> what is bdcmsgcol and how it works with call transaction method?
BDCMSGCOLL is a structure available in the abap dictonary. We use this

to handle errors in call

transaction. We need to declare an internal table like bdcmsgcoll.

When a database table is updated we get some messages like sucessfull , or

not sucessfull or sucessful with some warning message. All these messages
pass through this structure. We can capture them using a function module

4> What is the role of (gui_upload) functional module in call

> transaction method?
its the same as ws_upload or Upload fm. used for uploading data from flat

file to internal table.
5> what is the difference between synchronous and asynchronous update?
in synchronous updated the parent table is updated along with the child

tables and then a sy-subrc is returned. 0 fior sucessful and 4 or 8 for not

sucessful. While in asynchronous updatetion after the updation of the

parent table we get a sy-subrc return. The system is not bothered if the

child tables are updated or not.

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