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The system checks the ABAP program statically when you create them and dynamically when they are running The following checks have to be performed:

Syntax check

The syntax check tests the syntax of the program and internal semantics of the program. To start the syntax check - 

  • Choose&nbsp from the application toolbar, if the program is currently displayed in the ABAP Editor.
  • Select the relevant program in the object list and choose Check -> Syntax from the context menu.

At the first error detected, the check stops, and the system explains the error.

All syntax check errors must be corrected if you want to be able to run the program.

Unicode Check

From Release 6.0, ABAP supports multi-byte coding for characters in Unicode.  There is a checkbox called 'Unicode checks active' in Goto->attributes options. This check will make sure that Unicode check will get performed during the syntax check ,i.e, the check lists all the statements that are designed to exploit the Unicode capabilities of the runtime environment.

To start the Unicode check -

  • Tick the "Unicode checks active" check box found in the Program's Attributes: Goto -> Attributes . Choose  from the application toolbar.
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  • Go to transaction UCCHECK, specify the program name and modify the selection screen inputs if required. Then click on   . The system returns a table of the errors, warnings, and messages found, as shown in the screen shot below. Double-clicking on an entry navigates you to the errors in your program. The transaction UCCHECK can be used to examine a Unicode program set for syntax errors without having to set the program attribute "Unicode checks active" for every individual program.

Extended Program Check

Refer to this link.

Dynamic Check

Errors that cannot be detected statically, i.e, those that occur at runtime are detected by the ABAP runtime environment. Such errors lead to exceptions. If such an exception is not handled (or cannot be handled)in the program, a runtime error occurs. In such a case, the runtime environment terminates the program, generates a short dump, and switches to a special screen from which you can analyze it. You can analyse it through transaction ST22 also. Dynamic program check can be performed only by executing the code for the test scenarios. 

To start the dynamic check -

  • Choose    from the application toolbar, if the main program is currently displayed in the ABAP Editor.
  • Select the relevant program in the object list and choose Test -> Direct Processing from the Program menu.

Provide the necessary input and click on 

Short dumps are divided into blocks describing different aspects of the error. In the overview, you can see what information is contained in the short dump, for example, the contents of data objects, active calls, control structures, and so on. The short dump overview also allows you to display the point in the program at which the termination occurred in the ABAP Debugger.