Transaction variants can be used for customizing the standard screens according to your business needs and implemented using SHD0 transaction.
Transaction variants are actually made up of a set of screen variants. The field values and field attributes for each screen in a transaction variant are stored in screen variants. Transaction and screen variants may be created for all dialog and reporting transactions. Transaction variants may not be created for transactions already containing pre-defined parameters (parameter transactions and variant transactions).
Transaction & screen variants are independent objects and are cross client. By saying this, the variants can be transported.
Transaction variants can be used for:
1. Populating default values into the screen fields.
2. Change the ready for input status for fields.
3. Hiding & changing various screen elements, menu functions.
4. Hiding & changing the attributes of the screen fields
5. Adjusting table control settings.
Please gothrough the note 547763 for FAQs: Transaction Variants.