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SYSTEM LOG(SM21)
a) Can be used to detect and correct errors in our SAP system and its Environment.
b) SAP application servers record events and problem in system logs.
c) Every SAP application Server has a local log that contains the messages output by this server.
Dump Analysis(ST22)
a) If unpredictable errors occurs during run-time when you call an ABAP program , a run-time error that generates a short dump can occurs.
b) By default, short dump are stored in the system for 14 days.
c) You can delete short dumps in accordance with a time specification using the reorganize function ,which you call by choosing Goto -->Reorganize .
d) one can save a short dump without a time limit using the KEEP function ,which one can choose from detail view under short Dump -->KEEP/RELEASE.
Characteristics of Dump Analysis:-
1) If a run time error occurs ,a short dump is generated.You can use transaction ST22 to analyzer this short dump.
2) Dump data is stored in the database.
3) Dump data can be reorganized.
4) Individual short dump can be flagged for retention.
System Trace (ST01)
To record the internal SAP activities ,such as authorization checks,database access ,kernel functions and RFC calls.
The system trace is used for analyzing:
a) Authorization checks
b) Kernel functions
c) Kernel modules
d) DB accesses (SQL Trace)
e) Accesses to table buffers
f) Lock operations (client-side).
PERFORMANCE TRACE(ST05)
The Performance trace is used for analyzing:
a) Database calls
b) Lock management calls
c) Accesses to table buffers
d) Remote calls of reports and transactions
e) Individual trace records
f) SQL statements.
DEVELOPER TRACE(ST11)
Developer traces are recordings that contain technical information and that are used if errors occur.
a) Can be read by using Transaction AL11.
b) Browse to directory usr/sap//d*/work.
c) Developer trace can be viwed at dev_* files.
d) Can be accessed in Transaction: SM50. Process → Trace → Display File.

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