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Purpose

The purpose of this WIKI is to explain what the profitability segment is and to understand how does profitability segment works.

Overview

A profitability segment is an element of an operating concern which is formed by a number of characteristics. Each intersection corresponds to a profitability segment (each combination of characteristics is a profitability segment).


With the help of the profitability analysis, costs and revenues on one market segment can be compared, wherein the market segment can be freely defined by a combination of many characteristic values like e.g. material group or sales organization. A profitability segment defines exactly one element of this operating concern that is defined from various characteristic values. Similar to the CO-object of an order item, the accruing costs and revenues are collected first on the profitability segment and then settled in the profitability analysis.

Here various scenarios are conceivable. Thus e.g. the profitability segment can be formed in the sales order itself, if plan costs and plan revenues should be updated. But a profitability segment can be determined first even in the invoice, if only the Actual revenues and actual costs should be updated from the transfer price. Another option would be to perform a make-to-order production, in which the costs from an assembly order and the revenues from the invoice are first collected on the CO-object of the order, before these are forwarded during the settlement of CO-object in the profitability analysis.

Profitability analysis

Tables in CO-PA:

For an operating concern xxxx the following CO-PA tables exist:

CE1xxxx   Actual line item (incoming sales orders, invoices, settlement)
CE2xxxx   Plan line item in CO-PA (not related to SD)
CE3xxxx   Aggregated data of plan and actual values
CE4xxxx   Profitability segments

Since release 4.5B the table  CE4xxxx_ACCT  exists, which contains all relevant information about the characteristics of the profatibility segments.
The profitability segment numbers from the sales order are saved in this table. When the CO-PA line item is posted a profitability segment with another profitability segment number is written into table  CE4xxxx.

From SD the structures  COBL,  KOMK,  KOMP,  VBAK,  VBAP and  VBKD  are transferred to the function module  COPA_PROFITABILITY_SEGMENT.
It returns the profitability segment number  COBL-PAOBJNR.

Preconditions for the determination of a profitability segment:

  • the required organizational data are available (plant, controlling area, operating concern),
  • the profitability analysis is active,
  • there is no project account assignment,
  • there is no account assignment to another sales order item or to an internal order / service order (exception: transfer of incoming sales orders is active).

A profitability segment is created if:

  • the order item has a CO object,
  • the account-based profitability analysis is active (KEKE),
  • transfer of incoming sales orders is active and the item is relevant for billing (KEKF),
  • the order item is relevant for revenue recognition. 
  • Check whether a profitability segment is mandatory:
    FV45PF0E, Form ERGEBNISOBJEKT_ANLEGEN_PRUEFEN.
  • When a sales order is created the profitability segment is determined in:
    FV45PF0E, Form ERGEBNISOBJEKT_ANLEGEN.
  • When a sales order is changed the profitablity segment is updated in:
    FV45PF0E, Form ERGEBNISOBJEKT_AKTUALISIEREN.
  • The profitability segment  COBRB-PAOBJNR  of the settlement rule must be identical to the profitability segment  VBAP-PAOBJNR  of the order item.
  • In the delivery the profitability segment  LIPS-PAOBJNR  is generally copied from the sales order.
  • In the invoice the profitability segment is copied from the preceding document. If this is not possible the invoice determines a profitability segment  VBRP-PAOBJNR.
  • Erroneous profitability segments can be updated with report  ZZERGOBJ.

Profitability segment determination in follow-up documents:

In order documents (e.g. offer, order, returns), a new determination of the profitability segment always takes place, provides this is needed by the system and provided that there is no account assignment already on an initiator document. While creating a delivery, on the other hand, the profitability segment number is copied from the preceding document. It is similar while creating an invoice (order-related or delivery-related). However if the system determines that the invoice has not received any profitability segment from the preceding document, a separate profitably segment determination in the invoice takes place.

Profitability segment in incompletion log:

The processing of the log of incomplete items in the program FV45PFAP_VBAP_PRUEFEN_VOLLST contains a special logic for the profitability segment VBAP-PAOBJNR (more precisely it is the profitability segment number). This is processed internally through the incompleteness procedure FEHGR = 'MP', which is defined system-internally, and cannot be changed through the transaction OVA2.

  • If the profitability segment is not entered in the incompleteness procedure to the item, the profitability segment appears nevertheless in the incompleteness log, provided it is required by the system, but could not be determined automatically (due to wrong customizing or wrong derivation rules).
  • If the profitability segment number is entered in the incompleteness procedure, it appears in the incompleteness log even when it is not needed by the system. This case is to be provided for the situation, when the profitability segment is needed first in the invoice, but for this purpose must be created in the order itself.

Related Content

  • Related Documents
  • Related SAP Notes/KBA

Related Documentation

Related SAP Notes/KBAs

SAP Note 35288: Technical Documentation CO-PA

SAP Note 199467:  Info: New act assignment table as of Release 4.5

SAP Note  69384:  Information: Account-based Profitability Analysis

SAP Note 79847: Updating profitability segment in SD document

SAP Note 579461: No update of the settlement rule

SAP Note 729381: When is a profitability segment supposed to be determined ?